Discretionary Revocation of the Suspension of Execution of Sentence. Revocation of Concurrent Suspensions of Executions of Sentences. Effect of Elapsing of Period of Suspension. Insanity and Diminished Capacity. Reduction or Exculpation of Punishments for Attempts. Restriction on Cumulative Imposition of Punishments.
Mizuho Financial Group: Aiming for a "Digital Bank"
Cumulative Imposition of Fines. Aggravated Punishments for a Second Conviction. Third or Further Repeated Conviction. Reduced Punishment for Accessories. Exception of Punishment for Inducement and Accessoryship. Reduction of Punishment in Light of Extenuating Circumstances. Rules for Statutory Reduction. Statutory Reduction and Choice of Several Punishments. Order of Aggravation and Reduction.
Accessoryship to Insurrection. Instigation of Foreign Aggression. Damage of Foreign National Flag. Preparations or Plots for Private War. Violations of Neutrality Orders. Obstructing or Compelling Performance of Public Duty.
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Obstruction of Compulsory Execution. Assistance in Escape by a Guard. Special Provision for Crimes by Relatives.
Arson of Uninhabited Buildings. Setting Fire to Objects Other than Structures. Special Provision for Offender's Own Objects. Fire Caused through Negligence.
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For newcomers and experts The sources therefore allow us to state that what was involved was a systematic organization backed by state power. The village chiefs could not have been fooled as regards what awaited these girls at the hands of the soldiers. They chose the poorest families to suggest to them that they send their daughters without explicitly stating where they would be sent.
But the families no longer had any news and had suspicions about their fate. The majority of them never returned to the village. The families received notice of mobilization three days before their departure. Some families tried to marry their daughters or let them escape. But there was a great shortage of partners, because able-bodied men had already been mobilized either for forced labour or for the army.
Flight was punished by fines and parents were beaten to divulge where their daughters were hidden Senda, Now all single girls and women aged between 12 and 40 were affected. Not all of them were sent to the battlefields to serve as sexual slaves; the criterion seems to have been age, with selection focusing on the youngest of them and probably those deemed to be the prettiest.
Work in the arms factories was very hard. It resembled forced labour and the women suffered discrimination and malnutrition. Many received no remuneration, despite the promises, but faced with public opprobrium it was impossible for them to claim any compensation after the war.
For their part, the great majority of ianfu were sent either to Manchuria or the South Sea islands.
In China, according to the testimony of former captains or commanders of the Japanese army, village notables received the order to assemble women, the majority of them very young girls — for example, for the garrisons of Liangshitang or the village of Dongshi in the Hubei Yoshimi, We also find, in a report by the Tientsin police, a list of 42 Chinese prostitutes out of the 86 sent to a Japanese army station in the province of Henan who had made their escape.
This document makes it possible to confirm that even for professionals the working conditions in these ianjo seemed intolerable and terrifying. Furthermore, the soldiers had to pay for the services Hicks, All these facts of sequestration and abduction were notably acknowledged in the judgements handed down by the Family Court of Tokyo in eight of the ten cases begun since by former comfort women or their families.
Inquiries conducted in Shanxi in the s and s reveal how numerous the rapes committed in China were. Kasahara establishes 84 cases of individual or mass rape women in the province of Henan and different sites for the province of Shanxi, including 6, for the single prefecture of Jiaocheng Xian between and Kasahara, 6. According to Senda, the creation of prostitution stations for army soldiers was motivated in the first instance by an obsessive fear of venereal disease.
The violence escalated as a result of the emergence of a movement of resistance to the Japanese occupation. Here the major difference with Western armies consists in the system of prostitution practiced. That is why some historians predominantly focus the debate on the forced or unforced character of the prostitution. According to the historian Fujiwara Akira , more than 60 per cent of the soldiers sent to the front in the context of the Pacific War were sacrificed for want of supplies.
The high command had not foreseen the supply difficulties and the obstacles that the soldiers would encounter in tropical territories where, contrary to their predictions, after having pillaged what they could, they did not rapidly find anything more to eat. He noted groin scarring indicating that they had contracted syphilis and compared Western statistics on rates of infection according to the age of the prostitutes. According to the documents available in his time, the younger the prostitute, the less infected she was ibid.
He stressed the contrast in this respect between the Japanese and Koreans whom he was able to observe during his time in Shanghai in see above. For this doctor the Japanese were worn-out women, abazure — tarts ibid. Moreover, he believed that Chinese prostitutes were dangerous, because those who had contracted venereal disease refused to use condoms so as to damage the Japanese army. His observations and his view played a significant role in the systematization of recruitment of young women from the colonies. Tanaka Mitsu thus expressed her revulsion at this expression, which was still used by men, including militants of the extreme left in the s.
This highly negative view of sexuality and woman reduced to sex persisted in post-war society, in a social structure where guilt is unilaterally shifted onto the woman and where, according to investigations, half of men have had recourse to the services of a prostitute. A paradigm shift was therefore doubly necessary for the issue of the ianfu to be acknowledged. Censorship was practiced even more strictly in Korea, where evoking the past existence of the ianfu was out of the question Yamashita, 8, With the mission of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East just accomplished, Japan, a new unconditional ally of the United States in the Cold War, spared itself the trouble of a national historical debate on the issue of war responsibilities.
Its political personnel, like its senior civil servants, escaped the purge. The Treaty of San Francisco signed in September , which came into force in April , exempted it from war reparations to Asian neighbours. In this context, set beside soldiers who had given their lives for the emperor and whose families deserved recognition and pensions, the ianfu were nothing but mercenary women who warranted only scorn and oblivion.
The break occurred in the new international context of the end of the Cold War and the emergence of a democracy movement in certain Asian countries, in which feminist movements played a very active role, particularly in South Korea. Rape and forced prostitution had not hitherto been recognized as violations of human rights or war crimes and the victims maintained their silence.
The Dutch, French and Chinese governments had certainly brought charges to the Tokyo Tribunal on the countryside brothels, but the issue had fallen into oblivion until the historians Yoshimi Yoshiaki and Hirofumi Hayashine revealed their existence to the public in and Furthermore, sexual violence was condemned as an offence against family honour, rather than for the harm inflicted on the victims themselves, according to article 46 of the Laws and Customs of War on Land Hague Convention, During the Second World War, no clause in the international law of war explicitly banned sexual violence against women in wartime.
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After the war, the victims lived in patriarchal societies where shame prevailed and they feared only one thing — that their fate would be revealed. Others continued to work as prostitutes for American soldiers Soh, Once revealed and brought to light by the victims themselves, the reality of this forced prostitution or sexual slavery, even in a national or international context conducive to the revelations, risked exposing the victims to trauma and rejection by their relatives this was true of a significant number of them, particularly in the Philippines and Indonesia, as indicated by a number of filmed accounts.
Added to this stigmatization was the campaign of calumny conducted by the Japanese extreme right, which found a large audience on the Internet. In Japan, however, it has been subject to targeted, violent attacks for ten years. Twenty years later, their existence and voices once again appear as a stain to be wiped away in order to construct an expurgated historical narrative.